DOI: 10.17689/psy-2015.1.9

 

УДК 159.9.072

 

An empirical study of the career orientation of the individual graduates

of pedagogical high school

©   2015  Zhuina Diana Valerievna,

Candidate of Psychological Sciences, assistant professor at the “Special and Applied Psychology”, a branch of Mordovian State Pedagogical Institute named after M.E. Evsevev, Saransk dianazhuina@yandex.ru

 

Annotation. The article deals with studying the career orientation of the personality of pedagogy students as a key element of the structure of the personality of a competitive specialist who is in demand on the labor market. The author analyzed the main research trends in this problematic area. The article describes in detail the procedure and the results of empirical study targeting identification of career orientation of the pedagogy students' personality, formulates the conclusion on the necessity of carrying out goal-oriented and scheduled work on creation of adequate conditions for development of the career orientation of the students' personality.

Keywords: career, personality orientation, career orientation of students' personality, elements of the personality career orientation.

 

Эмпирическое исследование карьерных ориентаций

выпускников педагогического вуза

©   2015  Жуина Диана Валериевна,

Кандидат психологических наук, доцент кафедры специальной и прикладной психологииМордовского государственного педагогического института имени М.Е. Евсевьева, г. Саранск dianazhuina@yandex.ru

 

Аннотация. Статья посвящена изучению карьерных ориентаций студентов-выпускников педагогического вуза, как ключевого элемента структуры личности конкурентоспособного специалиста, который пользуется спросом на рынке труда. Автор проанализировал основные направления исследований по этой проблеме. В статье подробно описывается процедура и результаты эмпирического исследования карьерных ориентаций студентов, сформулирован вывод о необходимости проведения целенаправленной работы по созданию адекватных условий для развития карьерных ориентаций личности учащихся.

 

Ключевые слова: карьера, карьерные ориентации, карьерные ориентации личности студентов, элементы карьерной ориентации личности.

 

Introduction. The contemporary Russian youth currently more and more orients to the image of a successful person, which comes from the western culture and which is advocated by mass media, making them to wish to have a higher status without any intention to develop their respective professional competences. This conditions the revision of the whole system of education at a higher educational institution and application during the education and parenting process of new technology, which forms professional competences necessary for a highly skilled specialist who has strong competitive position in the labor market.

The analysis of domestic and foreign theoretical and methodological concepts carried out by A.K. Kanamatova showed that the problem of socialization of a professional is topical for various spheres of knowledge: politology (R.G. Grigoryan, A.V. Grishin, and others); economics (N.V. Volkova, V.V. Goncharov, I.A. Polents, and others); sociology (A.B. Alewxandrova, A.I. Kravchenko, A.A. Lobanov, D.Y. Chebotareva, F.R. Fillipov, and others); pedagogy (V.K. Shapovalov, B. Idzikovsky, and others); psychology of professional activity (A.A. Bodalev, A.A. Derkach, V.G. Zazykin, E.F. Zeer, E.A. Klimov, N.S. Pryazhnikov, and others) etc. [Kanamatova, 2010, p. 121].

Lately, the studies of psychological aspects of professional career were carried out, particularly, career orientations of students (Y.A. Burmakova, A.A. Zhdanovich, O.P. Ternovskaya), career readiness of higher educational institution graduates (A.S. Mironova-Tikhomirova), and interpretation of the psychological substance of career (S.T. Janeryan, E.A. Klimov, E.A. Mogilevkin, E.G. Moll) and of the study of factors of career development of a specialist (E.F. Zeer, A.K. Markova, E.G. Moll, N.S. Pryazhnikov, and others) was suggested. [Kanamatova, 2010, p. 128].

At the same time, the problem that remains topical and not solved is the problem of determination and diagnostics of career orientation of the students' personality, organization of efficient activity on developing career orientation of the personality of the modern youth; formation of the readiness of graduates to implement in full their energetic and informational potential in the sphere of professional activity; and ability to achieve success in their career development activity competently.

The high demand of the practice combined with the absence of sufficient theoretical development has determined the timeliness of raising the problem of diagnostics of career orientation of the pedagogy students' personality.

Body of the work. When considering the substance of the orientation concept, we come to the conclusion that while acting as the most important property of the personality, it expresses the dynamics of the person's development as a social and spiritual creature and main trends of his behavior. Orientation is implemented in various forms: value-related orientations, sympathy and antipathy, tastes, proneness, and devotions, and is expressed in various spheres of human life activities – professional, family, political, and other activities [Zhuina, 2013, p.103].

Thus, the orientation of personality in psychology is determined as a system of stable needs, interests, and ideals, i.e. anything that a human wants. Orientation sets the main trends of his behavior. As orientation is a complex personal establishment, which determines the whole behavior of a personality, self-attitude, and attitude to the people around, it is divided into general orientation of a personality and professional orientation, which plays the decisive role in career development.

Considering the issues related to career development, the majority of foreign researchers [Bandura, 1989, p. 456], [Roe, 1956, p. 245], [Hall, 1993, p. 17], [Shein, 2010, p. 54], understanding of this term emphasize the importance of a person's success in the professional sphere, studying the conditions and factors, which determine selection and development of the career.

The domestic scientific theories and concepts (E.F. Zeer, E.A. Klimov, T.V. Kudryavtseva, A.M. Kukharchuk, V.I. Lukyanenko, L.M. Mitina, Y.P. Povarenkov, N.S. Pryazhnikov, A.T. Rostunov, P.G. Shchedrovitsky, A.B. Zenziper, and others) determine career, on the one hand, as general sequence of stages of human development in the main spheres of life (labor, family, etc.). The units of periodization of the personality professional socialization that are used in these works are stages, periods, and phases. The stages mainly coincide with the stages of professional socialization: pre-professional personality development (preparation for professionalization); search and selection of a profession, educational institution; professional education; independent professional activity. Periods are the elements of stages and appear as a result of a concept particularization. On the other hand, consideration of career is more particularized: as the dynamics of status and activeness in professional activity [Zhuina, 2014, p. 540].

One of the conditions of successful career development is the formed career orientation of a personality (some of the researches call it career aspirations). Career orientation can be represented as systematic three-level education included in the more generalized system of personality orientation. On the metasystem level, orientation acts as the leading characteristic of personality: "dynamic tendency" (S.L. Rubinstein), "sense-making motive" (A.N. Leontyev), "prevailing attitude" (V.N. Myasishchev), "attitude to other people, to the society, and to oneself" (V.S. Merlin), "socially conditioned substructure of personality" (K.K. Platonov), "main life orientation" (B.G. Ananyev), "backbone property of personality, which determines its psychological structure" (B.F. Lomov) [Shchelokova, 2011, p. 86].